Krishna starts to Teach!
Trying to understand Arjuna, Lord Krishna tells him he cannot understand what has happened to at this time of need. Arjuna explains he would rather beg and live on alms than to fight and kill his teachers, brave men on the other army.
Lord Krishna then explains: “You are speaking the truth and like the learned person, yet grieving for those not to be grieved, for wise men do not sorrow over the dead or living”.
Krishna says to Arjuna, There wasn’t a time when they both weren’t existing, or all those present in the battlefield. Krishna refers here to the souls, which forever exist. He further explains that the contact between the senses and their objects, gives rise to feelings such as heat or cold, pleasure and pain, and they are transitory, fleeting and should be ignored.
“Naasato vidyate bhaavo naabhaavo vidyate sataha, ubhayorapi drishto’ntastvanayosattvadarshibhihi” (ch.2,16)
“The unreal has no existence, and the Real never cease to be; the reality of both has thus been perceived by the seers of Truth”
Krishna tells Arjuna of this body, which will cease to exist, therefore unreal! The eternal soul is the Truth, and will last forever! That is the reason why Arjuna needs to fight this righteous war, as the body can be killed but not the soul. He even says, fool is the one who thinks a sould can kill or be killed.
What is the soul then, what are its characteristics?
The soul, as Krishna teaches, is imperishable, never born and nor dies, eternal, ever-lasting and primeval. The born (like the body) will cease to be, but the unborn (like the soul) will never cease to be!
The second issue in these teachings is when Krishna reminds Arjuna that he is a Kshatriya! A warrior class. His duty is to fight a righteous war, for a war for a Kshatriya is a gateway to heaven, and the not fighting will lead him to hell and will incur sin.
Third teaching is Karma Yoga (Selfless action)Karma yoga is the way of avoiding the shackles of karma. One needs to work and never to think of the outcome, or the fruits of his actions. Do not get attached. Be even in success and failure. This is true Karma Yoga!
Arjuna Asks Krishna how to distinguish a God-Realized soul?
Krishna answers as follows: one who has no cravings of the mind, has no thirst for pleasures, free from passion, fear, anger, unattached, equanimate whether good or evil encounters him.
“Unfulfilled desire creates Anger” (ch.2,62)
“Tasmaadyasya mahaabaaho nigriheetaani sarvashaha, indriyaaneendriyaathebhyastasya prajnyaa pratishthitaa” (ch. 2,68)
“Therefore ,Arjuna, he, whose senses are completely restrained from their objects, is said to have a stable mind”
As we can see by Krishna’s teachings in this chapter, the soul is not the body! Those are two different things! One should know his senses and control them, be equanimate to whatever he encounters, whether favourable or not.
Next chapter on Karma Yoga – Yoga of Action